Free Derry Corner

Location

In 1969, 33 Lecky Road, the last house in the row and recently abandoned by a family of three generations of McKanes, had a gable wall overlooking a piece of vacant ground known then as Kitty Kane’s Corner (after the mother McKane from the previous generation). (Possibly also known as Fox’s Corner – Irish Central | Derry City | Derry Journal).

Here is an aerial image of the Bogside (taken from the Bloody Sunday Inquiry, as presented here). The view is looking northeast; the river Foyle is visible at the top, the walls of the old city run from top to bottom just to the right of centre, and the steep grassy slope that sweeps down to the Bogside is in the bottom centre.

On the left of the image, Lecky Road runs from the bottom of the image up to the middle. The old houses of Lecky Road, beginning with number 33, are still in place (they would be demolished in the mid-70s), with the vacant ground at their top end. The vacant ground was created when the low odd numbers of Lecky Road were removed during the Bogside’s redevelopment.

(Details of the redevelopment. Moving clockwise from the left, from Free Derry Corner/the vacant ground: Lisfannon Park flats were built to the left (replacing the low even numbers of Lecky Road and Nelson and Wellington streets); Glenfada Park flats were built above Fahan Street; crossing Rossville St, Rossville flats replaced the cattle market; and St Joseph’s flats (the smaller flats below Rossville flats) were built where Fahan Street used to turn west. Fahan Street runs along the walls diagonally through the middle-right of the image above and then used to go directly north-west; in this image it wraps around the bottom of the flats in St Joseph’s Place before heading north-west (which appears as almost due west in the image above). The road that continues the southward direction of Fahan Street is St Columb’s Wells, parallel to Lecky Road.

Here is another image from the period, taken from the west. Free Derry Corner is in the middle of the picture:
X09265 Lecky Rd+
(Unattributed X09265)

Although the wall (when first painted) was the gable of 33 Lecky Road, the very short street between Lecky Road and St Columb’s Wells, (with, in the image above, six chimneys to the right of Free Derry Corner) is St Columb’s Street. As there are no longer any houses here, Free Derry Corner is now generally described as being on Lecky Road.

Early History: The Slogan

The original, hand-written, January 5th, 1969, version of “You are now entering Free Derry” was done by Liam Hillen. Hillen tells the story like this:
“We were standing around there, it must have been two or three in the morning, heating ourselves up, and I said to Eamonn McCann, “Jesus, I am fed up standing around here doing nothing.”
And Eamonn turned around and said, “Why don’t you go and paint a sign on that gable wall over there?” I asked what we should we paint up, and guys made suggestions like “We Demand Free Beer” and various other things. Then McCann turned round and said, “Why don’t you stick up “You are now entering Free Derry”?” I said, “That’s it, we’ll stick that up,” and turned round and said, “Anybody know where I can get some paint and a brush?” And this wee fella standing on the right-hand side of me said his aunt lived up the street a bit.
So we went and found a can of yellow paint and a can of blue paint, anything else didn’t have much in it. I remembered that yellow and blue made green, so I mixed them together. I got this old hard brush and me and the wee boy walked back down to the corner and up to the gable wall. Big Danny Begley was about six foot tall so he leaned up against the wall with his hands interlocked and gave me a lift up. Chris Armstrong held the paint and I dipped into it.”
(Derry Journal) (Hillen died on Christmas Day, 2018 – Derry Journal.)
Free Derry Corner was born.
Slogan with oak leaf (obscured on left); without “Vote McCann” or “Hume for Derry”.

(Unattributed X09173)
Slogan with oak leaf on left, with “Vote McCann” above, and “Hume for Derry” on right.
1969 FDC – Pathé
(British Pathé X09169; X09170)
Slogan with oak leaf on left, with “Vote McCann” above, and “Hume for Derry” on right.

(Image from Free Derry Museum, perhaps taken by Jim Davies X09171)
According to the Derry JournalWar And An Irish Town, and The Bogside Artists, the inspiration for the slogan was the U.S. civil rights movement and student protests at the University Of California, Berkeley. McCann states that he had seen footage of the protests, including a placard stating “You Are Now Entering Free Berkeley” (Derry Now). There do not appear to be any images on-line of the phrase in connection with the ‘Free Speech’ movement of the mid-60s or People’s Park in 1969.
(Another possible influence is “free” radio stations. On January 10th, at 7 pm, a transmitter that had been smuggled in from the Republic began broadcasting under the name “Radio Free Derry” (DigWithIt) with the words “This is the first free radio Derry has ever known …” “Free” in this context means “not state-controlled”, as was claimed for Radio Free Europe (begun in 1949) and Radio Free Asia (begun in 1951), both US-sponsored broadcasts to communist countries.)
(Culture Northern Ireland says the slogan is an imitation of signs at the East-West Berlin border, but does so without attribution or citation.)
Early History: First “Block” Lettering
John “Caker” Casey did the more professional version in August, ahead of a visit by UK Home Secretary James Callaghan on August 28th — black block letters on a whitewashed background.
(Unattributed X09174)
Here is a still taken from video of Callaghan’s visit, from the BBC documentary No Go (at 7m 26s). RTÉ also has video of Callaghan being applauded in the Bogside, at 9m 50s, and the crowd is then shown singing “We Shall Overcome”. (Casey died in 2000 – FindAGrave.)
(X09172 | see also Jeff Blankfort X05288 from 1970 | Barney McMonagle X05341 with “Liberation Fleadh” poster)

“Care-Free Derry” with faded “traitor” above the slogan
(Guildhall Press image possibly by Barney McMonagle X09175 | see also Larry Doherty X05314)

The word “care” was then papered over by a poster reading “Strike Now! Against Internment”

(Still from a YouTube video X09177 | see also X05258 and X05279 by Leonard Freed)

To this poster more were added: above ‘Strike now’ were two posters “Here comes the judge, jury, executioner” and “Don’t let them take any more – man your barricade” and above the “RY” of “Derry” “Don’t fraternise with the working class” and “Workers’ control – not army control”; there were also “Workers’ unity with McCann” stencils. (Barbey’s image shows the slogan being repainted. X05283)

Here is a 1971 shot of the gable wall at street level. The graffiti on the wall has been painted over.

(1971 Unattributed X09240 X09176 X09178 X09179 X09180. A similar image appears in this Derry Journal article.)

John Hume (fourth from left) sitting by a fire on the vacant ground, February 1972. Hume’s grandparents and their children (including Hume’s mother, Anne Doherty) lived in the row of houses on Lecky Road (YouTube).

Hume at a early morning demonstration in Derry, 1972. Photograph: Watford/Mirrorpix/Mirrorpix via Getty
(1972 Watford/Getty X09241 | also X05299 from February 1972 | X05301 colour photograph 1972 | X05313)

Here is a shot of the wall from (later?) 1972. The words “Free Derry” are now in white, on black squares, presumably in response to some damage or graffiti.

(1972 M00075 X09181 | Stones Speak 1m14s, 1m20s | Holger Rüdel has six images dated 1973 with this inverted lettering X05335 | in this condition in 1973-08)

Early History: The Wall
The houses were demolished in 1975 but the gable wall was retained (Derry Journal: 1974 discussions | 1975 final decision) and repainted.


(1976 M00077)

A Derry Journal article from 1976 reports a petition of 154 signatures claiming that the wall is unsafe.

An image from 1978 with the wall surrounded by fencing.
(1978 M00076) (see also Victor Patterson fenced-in wall from 1978.Stones Speak 0m43s | Homer Sykes (Alamy 2A5X1DD, 2A5X1DG, and 2A5X1DW) shows this wall paint-bombed in 1979)

The fence was removed and the slogan re-painted in chunky lettering. (1979 Peter Marlow X05275 shows the repainting in progress.)

(1981 possibly dating to 1979 M00078 | Stones Speak 2m06s | Caulkin X05321)

John Hume at the repainted FDC, with improvements to the ground around it.
X09184 1979+ FreeDerryJohnHume+
(Unattributed X09184)

Woods (Seeing Is Believing? p. 14) writes that “A member of the British army drove an armoured personnel carrier into the wall in 1982 taking off one side of it.” This (undated) image is perhaps of that event:

X11459 FDC crash+
(Unattributed X11459)

(The first painting of the other side of the wall was in 1983. There is a separate Visual History page for the rear of FDC.)

Early History: “Sans-serif” lettering
This 1986 image (below) shows the wall now with an apex and buttresses, and a flagpole.
(See Stones Speak 3m29s. It is not known who or what is responsible for the renovation of the wall – please get in touch if you know.)
A new, full-size slogan in sans-serif font is painted on the gable. The old maisonettes are still standing in the background.


(1986 M00389; also 1987)

Caker Casey in front of the sans-serif version of the slogan.
X11001 CakerCaseyFDC+
(Unattributed X11001)

This version stood for a number of years though as we can see from these images it was often paint-bombed and then repainted on various occasions (1989 one, 1990 two, 1990 three).
(1989 M00639)

Some time between 1990 and 1994 the slogan (in sans-serif lettering) was first “augmented” in the sense that other elements were added to the wall, either painted or attached.
In 1991, a board with the words “Johnny Walker” was added to the apex, for the return of the Birmingham 6 prisoner.
X11000 1991 JohnnyWalkerFDC+
(Unattributed X11000 | Woods p. 15 | Stones Speak 9m42s)
A rainbow was painted by Arlene Wege for the 20th anniversary of Bloody Sunday in 1992.
FDC rainbow
(M01098 Sinn Féin collection | Stones Speak 10m07s)
Early History: “Skinny” lettering
The slogan is painted in a skinny serif font.
1993 “Sam [Maguire] You Are Now Entering Free Derry”
X09186 FDC Sam+
(Unattributed X09186 | Stones Speak 7m23s)
In 1994, around the time that The Petrol Bomber (the first mural by the Bogside Artists) and the 25th anniversary mural for the Battle of the Bogside were painted beside it, the gable was painted bright red and the slogan painted in yellow. According to Oona Woods in Seeing Is Believing (note to plate 14), the repaint was “A temporary transformation in 1994 by artist Colin Darke who painted the wall a socialist-related red and yellow to engender dialogue about its origins and current role in the community.” Darke’s press release is included on p. 16.

(1994 M01112 D00477 D00476)
1995 “No RUC” added to a black-on-white wall (and also to The Petrol Bomber)
(1995 M01174 D00478)
With a green ribbon for the ‘free the political prisoners’ campaign
(1995 M01252 | T00101)
Green ribbon and celebrating volunteer/’sniper at work’
(1996 M01267 J0029)
199x Ribbon + sniper + Kurdish flag
(M05512)
1995? “Saoirse” with dripping blood
(
Stones Speak 2m52s)
The mostly-restored wall after Saoirse:

M07593+
(Unattributed M07593)

1997-01: 14 small flagpole holders were added to the rear for a black-flag commemoration of Bloody Sunday.
FDC black flags
(Unattributed X09185)

Early History: “Uneven-Y” lettering
The new lettering still has serifs but is thicker than previously (1998)
Here with a black ribbon (for Bloody Sunday):
(1998 M01385 Also seen with the 14 flags thejournal.ie)
(1999 M02110)
Perhaps in 2000, upon his death 2000-09-18: “Caker Casey Was Here January 5th 1969” graffiti. (The original was in fact by Liam Hillen.)
2001, again with a black ribbon
(2001 M01405 M01408 D01339)
In the snow
(2001 M01568)
Flying a Palestinian flag
(2002 M01612)

Also with the uneven-Y lettering:
2003 “Bush Not Welcome” (M02042 M02043 pinterest)
200x “McCann’s Your Man – Vote no 1” graffiti (M05510)
200x with black ribbon and ?’Rosemary Nelson’? sash (Stones Speak 9m51s)

The wall was repaired (in 2004 – see X05958 | Stones Speak 3m09s, 3m13s, 3m23s) and the slogan repainted.
We will refer to this font and size on the wall (as shown just below) as “normal appearance” in what follows, as this style of lettering has persisted until the present day (2022).
(2004 M02135)
The chronological history of the wall will resume after we take a break to discuss the wall’s influence around the world.

Influence
The name (“Free Derry Corner”), the slogan (“You are now entering free Derry”), and the shape and colour-scheme of the wall have been imitated in various parts of the world.

The closest (geographically) might be “Freedom Corner” – the series of UDA murals in east Belfast. Freedom Corner comprises four (one-storey) gables and seven side-walls along the Newtownards Road; it went by “Freedom Corner” by 1994 (at the latest). It is not a corner (though the houses were originally built without the side walls) and so the “corner” in its name might have been inspired by Free Derry Corner.

The large gable at the bottom of Sandy Row (Belfast) bore the words “You are now entering Loyalist Sandy Row” with the same line-breaks – You/Are Now/Entering – as on FDC (M01519 | M02286).

The fame of FDC has spread beyond Northern Ireland, as the following images and links attest:

Free Dheisheh, West Bank (2010)
Free Garbatella, Rome (2010) See also Cestandrea.

(Amy’s Notes X09243)

Free Baiona, Galicia (Spain) (2016)

Free Brooklyn, Baltimore (2017)
A mural on the side of O'Flynn's Crab & Cask House in Brooklyn reads, "You are now entering Free Brooklyn."
(Baltimore Sun)
Free Errekaleor, Basque Country (2018)
File:"You are now entering free Errekaleor" murala Errekaleorren.jpg
(WP)
Free Deustu (in the Basque Country)
X05690 Free Deustu
(X05690 This version appeared on ireland_history. An earlier version appeared on Twitter.)
“You are now entering free Cap[itol] Hill” (2020 protests in Seattle in the wake of the killing of George Floyd.)

(Catherine Sanz X09246)
Free Liverpool in the upper courtyard of McCooleys bar on Temple Ct in the Cavern Quarter of Liverpool (England) 2021
Free Liverpool
(Unattributed X09247)

Later History: “Normal appearance” lettering

200x “Iraq – troops out. Vote McCann” graffiti (NWPressPics date given is 2000-03 but the lettering is normal appearance)

2005-01 background of Palestine flag (BBC)
2005 normal appearance
M02641+(M02641)

2006 “Wear A Black Shamrock” stencil on buttress
M02759+
(M02759)

2007-01 with Toussaint l’Ouverture on right buttress, Mairéad Farrell on the left (as you look at the wall)

2007-07 Pink background for the first time, for “Foyle Pride”

(M03932)

2007-08 with black ribbon
2007-12 with Christmas hat (pinterest)

2008-07-26 and 2008-07-27 “Vision of the Future” by “Non Stop” graffiti artists from Switzerland (BBC)
2008-08 with “Civil Rights” oak leaves (Tovey)
2009-01 “Free Gaza” – warplane bombs pram (indymedia)
2009-02 “You are now entering free Gaza” – remnants of previous (geograph)
2009-10 Derry To Gaza – blockade trip (indymedia)
2010-01 eyes (for ‘Set the truth free’ Bloody Sunday campaign) (Clare Courier)
2010-04 Set The Truth Free (Barnes)
2010-05 “One World 28 – 30 May” blue, pink, green, red hands (Flickr)
2010-06 No More Bloody Sundays

(M05856)
2010-08 “Not for sale” (indymedia)
2010-08 “Free Derry” in rainbow colours (Flickr)
2011-01/02 flying pride rainbow flag
M06381+
(M06381)
2011-01/02 flying large TricolourM06521+(M06521)

(circa Easter)
M06630+
2011-06 Ballymurphy Massacre flyer
M06843+
(M06843)
2011-07 Release Brendan Lillis posters
M07108+
(M07108)
2011-08 Nebula
M07260+
(M07260)
2011-08 Nebula with “Support the POWs” graffiti M07285+
(M07285)

2011-08-17 normal appearance (with Mickey Devine 30th poster)M07444+
(M07444. M07441 shows Nebula being painted out)

2012-03 Free Marian Price lime-green posters
M07988+
(M07988)2012-03 “International Women’s Day – interned and isolated” – Marian Price posters
(pommietravels X09187)

2012-04-03 Stan Petrov graffiti (Derry Journal)

2012-04 red and black background (Flickr)

2012-06 Free Political Prisoners (Latuff)
M08306+
(M08306)
2012-09 RIP Alan Ryan
(pinterest)
2012-09 flying a Cuban flag, “RIP Alan Ryan” painted over
M08898+
(M08898)
2012-10 roughly “Never Again” Savita Halappanavar posters
[The area in front of the wall is done in pavers]
2013-03 “Two snakes too many – end internment” St Patrick – Theresa Villiers – David Ford
M09211+
(M09211 | McLaughlin)

2013-04 Ding dong, the witch is dead (Thatcher) + “Two snakes too many – end internment” (Whorriskey)

2013-04 “Thatcher’s dead – let’s bury greed with her” “Ding dong, the witch is dead”
M09430+
(M09430 M09431 M09432)
2013-05 flying a black flag
M09532+
(M09532)
2013-06 “You are now entering the final stage of the Walled City Marathon 2013”

(X05235)
2013-06 “RUC not welcome in Bogside – BRY” (Menzies)

2013-06 flying a green, white and black flag
M09633+
(M09633)

2013-06-07 or 08 “You are now entering Colmville” (BBC)
2013-06-21 flying AOH flag (Flickr)
2013-07 Kai Wiedenhöfer photo of Occupied Territories wall with Spanish Civil War flag
M10075+
(M10075 M10076 M10077)

2013-07 fleadhcheoil.ie

M10154+(M10154. M10245 shows faint “culture theft” stencil at bottom)

2013-08 pink background M10278+
(M10278 [M10378])

2013-09 allianceforchoiceni.org (broadsheet.ie)
2013-09 Derry To Athens: No Pasarán (El Norte De Irlanda)

2013-10 “Remember Savita – abortion rights now!” graffiti
X09188 2013-10 FDC Savita
(X09188 Derry Anarchists)

2013-12 Mandela (
Whorriskey)

2014-04 the plaster on the wall is replaced (Whorriskey)

2014-05 DEED – Derry Engages and Empowers Dementia
M11003+
(M11003)

2014-05 JFTC2 + RIP Oscar Knox (Whorriskey)

2014-06 “Gerry Conlon 1954-2014 fighting injustice until the end” (Checchi)

2014-07-12 “End Genocide In Gaza” – tears of blood
M11227+
(M11227)
2014-07 “The forgotten cancer” paulscampaign.com sarcoma awareness (N&SF Flickr)2014-07 normal appearance
M11293+
(M11293)

2014-07-29 “End Genocide In Gaza” – Bakr children with Palestinian flag
At first without names
M11297+
(M11297 M11298 M11299 M11300) then (2014-08) with names M11319+(M11319 M11320)

2014-09 Free Scotland (
broadsheet.ie)

2015-01 Hand Up Don’t Shoot – Derry – Palestine – Ferguson (Younge)
2015-01 Resist (Bloody Sunday) (Alamy)
2015-06 “Now The Craigavon 2”
M11699+
(M11699 M11700 M11701 M11702; Miossec)
2015- Paul’s Campaign – sarcoma awareness – “wear the colour yellow” poem with Plough In The Stars flag
M12594+
(M12594 M12595 M12596 M12597)

2015-?? three posters Maghaberry – brutality – isolation
M12814+
(M12814)

2015-08-28 “Queer Icons – Foyle Gay Pride” – flying rainbow flag
M12820+
(M12820 M12821 | Derry Journal)

2015-09 “Smash fortress Europe – no one is illegal” with ‘RIP Aylan’
M12831+
(M12831 M12832. M12833 Aylan)

2015-12 “Don’t Mourn – Organise” Joe Hill
M12898+
(
faded M12898 M12899 | see tripadvisor)
2016-01-11 RIP Paddy Bogside (irishnews.com)2016-01-31 flying ‘Irish Republic’ flag
M12913+
(M12913)

2016-03 flyers for March 28th Easter commemoration
M12964+
(M12946)

2016-05 “JFT96” (Hillsborough) (Cottrell-Boyce)

2016-05 and 06 James Connolly centenary quote

(M013698 X03602)

2016-08-04 “Paul’s Campaign – Sarcoma Cancer Awareness” (Hendrickson)2016-08-11 Edward Daly posters
M13947+
(M13947 | Derry Journal)

2016-08-27 “You are now entering – use a condom”
M14015+
(M14015 | NewsWireNI)

2016-11 “Fidel Castro 1926-2016” (
tripadvisor)

2016-11 flying Cuban flag (An Phoblacht)

2017-01 Rojava Revolution (Derry Now)
2017-02 You are noT entering free Derry (Saoradh | Stones Speak 4m51s)
2017-03 Free AFA Prisoners
M14713+
(M14713)
2017-04-01 Easter Commemoration Saoradh (Murney)
2017-04 Benefit Cuts Kill
M14744+
(M014744)2017-04 éistígí sticker

M14824+
(M14824)
2017-05 Solidarity With Palestine – Saoradh (Flickr)
2017-06 Relay For Life (Huffer)
2017-08 “We Have The Rainbow” – LGBTQ ransom note
M15233+
(M15233 | Bradley | BelTel)
2017-08 Take Our Wood? BRY (irishnews)
2017-09 Catalonia Resist (Flickr)
2017-10 lit up in Catalonian flag (Derry Journal)
2017-11 #worldwithoutwalls #BDS (McCaffery)
2018 Swedish flag (for World Cup match England v Sweden) (irp1916)
2018-05 Palestine flag
M15943+
(M15943 | Irish Times)
2018-07 With photos
M15961+
(M15961)
2018-07 yellow for Paul’s Campaign (Derry Journal)
2018-09 Pink in preparation for organ donation campaign
M16081+
(M16081 M016080 M016082 | BBC-NI | Derry Journal)

2018-09 Derry Girls Against Borders
M16355+
(M16355)

2018-10 Derry Girls Against Borders + Civil Rights For All
M16373+
(M16373)

2019-01 Face à la répression (antifa)
X09190 2019-01 FDC Repression
(Unattributed X09190)2019-03 “Fairtrade Derry” (Telegraph)

2019-03 #Think32 (tw | Sky)
2019-03 “#Think32” + “No justice, no peace” graffiti (Alamy | BBC)
2019-04 “#NotInOurName – RIP Lyra
M16453+
(M16453)

2019-06 Heroes Of Stonewall (tw)
2019-07 Gaza Abú
M16606+
(M16606)
2019-07 Sarcoma yellow (tw)
2019-07/08 Soldier F graffiti
2019-09 Is Deontóir Mé (organ donation) (Derry Journal)
2019-09 You Are Now Entering Extinction (tw)
2019-10 Solidarity With Catalunya (Alamy)
2019-10 You Are Now Entering Scary Derry (Sean & Nina)
2020-03 NHS ‘The people of Derry thank you” (tw)
2020-04 NHS “We support all our key workers”
07043 2020-04-23 FDC NHS wings+
(
X07043 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)

2020 As 2020-04 above with yellow background
2020-08 Justice For Noah [Donohoe] with small John Hume memorial
07485 2020-08-30 FDC Noah 2+
(X07485 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)
2020-08 The 2020 Hunger Strikers (John Hume now on side)
07618 2020-09-28 FDC HS 3+
(X07618 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)

2020-09 Yes I Donate
07568 2020-09-22 FDC Deontóir+
(X07568 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)
2021-03 A Woman’s Place Is In The Revolution
07985 2021-03-23 Womens Revolution FDC+
(X07985 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)
2021-03 Kathleen Maguire (Mother & Baby Homes)
(Derry Journal | Alamy)
2021-05-22 40th Anniversary of the 1981 Hunger Strike
X09189 2021-05-22 FDC HS 40th
(Unattributed X09189)
2021-05 Mica in building concrete
X08197 2021-05-27 Mica Redress 4+
(X08197 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)
2021-07 (Support for Italy vs England in the Euro “2020” final)
X08275 2021-07-10 AM FDC Italy+
(X08275 Used by permission of Eclipso Pictures)
2021-07 Bench and flower boxes added, vandalised, and on the wall “This wall is for the people!!! We won’t be silenced!!!”
(Derry Now | Derry Journal – the latter includes an image of the launch of the bench and boxes X09252)
2021-08
Sarcoma yellow
2021-10-04 John Pat Cunningham
2021-10-04 FDC Cunningham
(Unattributed X09248)
2021-11
Code Red (for COP26 conference in Glasgow)
X05633 2021-11-02 FDC Code Red
(Unattributed X05633)
2021-12 Green Ribbon
2021-12 FDC Green Ribbon(Unattributed X09250)
2022-01 “There is n0 British Justice” For the 50th anniversary of Bloody Sunday
X08960 2022-01-28 AM British Justice 1+
(X08960 X08961 Initially without the URL – see X08801)
2022-04 Stephen McConomy 40th anniversary
X10013 2022-04-24 AM Stephen McConomy Free Derry Corner - Derry (8) s
2022-07-16 painted yellow
2022-summer Alan Ryan (BelTel)
2022-08 Jason Ceulemans (Alamy)